Another benefit is that earwigs eliminate decaying organic materials from the environment. They eat algae, fungi, mosses, pollen as well as insects, spiders and mites both dead and live.
This week I discovered a family living in the folds of a Redroot (Lachnanthes caroliniana) leaf. I was thrilled to discover they are a native variety called the Lined Earwig (Doru taeniatum). With its bright, shiny pallor that glistens in the sunshine it doesn’t seem creepy to me at all.
Earwigs are generally nocturnal, although I’ve seen my guys out and about during the day in recent times, dancing quickly up and down the Bidens alba and grass seedheads. The genus Doru are important caterpillar predators and have a particular taste for the egg of the velvetbean caterpillar, a pest of pod plants especially soybeans.
Unlike a lot of the insect world, the momma earwigs provide care to their offspring, feeding their nymphs through regurgitation. They do, however, seem to play favorites.
Rumor has it that they fly, but I my bunch didn’t take to the airways. An earwig’s defense mechanism is to squirt foul smelling liquid or use the pinchers to…well…PINCH! Stand back and keep your fingers away, or just don’t annoy the little buggers.
Predators include the Tachinid fly, toads, birds, chickens and ducks. On a good note, natural enemies of the exotics, include arboreal earwigs (Doru taeniatum). So, I’m welcoming my new little friends!
While large populations may damage grass and be a pest if they get inside your home, they are generally harmless preying on more harmful insects. Just use common sense to keep home areas free from dampness.
So, while earwigs as a family may be a mixed bag, I’d vote for keeping my friendly native genus around.
*This tale was originally published by Loret T. Setters on August 9, 2013 at the defunct national blog beautifulwildlifegarden[dot]com. Click the date to view reader comments.
The redroot is in full blooming swing and the arthropods are showing their appreciation with their mass flocking to this pollinator magnet.
Carolina redroot (Lachnanthes caroliana) is a member of the Bloodwort family and an indicator of wetlands. Native to the coastal areas of the eastern US, in the northeast it is listed as threatened and endangered in much of the area, which may account for the fact that I wasn’t aware of this beauty until I got to Florida.
The sword-shaped leaves remind me of iris and I remember when I first got out here to my property I patiently waited for the “irises” to bloom. I was a little perplexed as the inflorescence began to unfold.
At first I thought them rather homely, but then they showed what they are made of, by being a virtual playground for butterflies, bees, wasps, spiders and more.
They can be quite stately some reaching heights of three foot. They look fabulous as a mass planting that they can achieve on their own as they spread by rhizomes as well as seed.
Tolerant and appreciative of flooding, they also stand up to drought so if you find some, might be a great addition to a rain garden.
The seeds are a favorite of Sandhill Cranes, a threatened species here in Florida and the roots are sort after by feral hogs, who have been known to destroy areas to satisfy their cravings.
The common name is based on the use of the roots as a dye that, when I experimented, produced an interesting tan leaning towards light rootbeer coloring. Subtle and pretty.
Perhaps, in the traditional sense, not the showiest of flowers…that is until they attract all that wildlife.
*This tale was originally published by Loret T. Setters on August 23, 2013 at the defunct national blog beautifulwildlifegarden[dot]com. Click the date to view reader comments.
I met a new butterfly this week. This particular butterfly is one of the skippers. Skippers are in the Superfamily Hesperioidea, as opposed to say, Swallowtails or Milkweed Butterflies that are in the Papilionoidea Superfamily encompassing Butterflies (excluding skippers).
Skippers are a diverse bunch and often hard to identify. This skipper was rather large, dull in color, but it intrigued me just the same.
Skippers can be somewhat trying to photograph. You see they…umm…skip from flower to flower and it is often nearly impossible to keep up with them. Luckily, this guy was drawn in by the nectar of Carolina Redroot(Lachnanthes caroliana) and seemed momentarily engrossed enough in his drinking habit that I was able to snap a couple of photos.
Unfortunately, I didn’t get great angles and it is imperative to have both the ventral and dorsal views of skippers to determine species. One dot, dash or directional mark can be a determining factor in getting it down to the correct species.
There are several subfamilies of skippers and because of the size, I knew it wasn’t one of the Grass Skippers (Subfamily Hesperiinae) as they are substantially smaller.
It had similar attributes to the Longtail Skippers that are Dicot Skippers (Subfamily Eudaminae). Dicot Skippers eat
There are also Spread-wing Skippers (Subfamily Pyrginae).
A quick check and I was able to determine it is one of the Cloudywings (Thorybes spp.). Comparing photos, I gave a preliminary identification as possible Confused Cloudwing (T. confusis).
As I always do with skippers, I checked in with my twitter pal @AndyBugGuy. Unfortunately, he reports there isn’t enough detail in the photos to provide a firm identification, but he did narrow it down to two possibilities: (1) the one I guessed or (2) Northern Cloudywing (T. pylades). Now it is up to me to keep my eyes peeled to see if I can get better shots or at least a good look myself to firm up the identification by paying close attention to the subtle differences in markings.
Often the larval host will help in determining butterfly species. In this case, I’d be more confident with it being a Northern Cloudywing (T. pylades) since there are numerous Desmodium species that are listed in the HOSTS database and occur on my property.
On the other hand, the HOSTS database lists Lespedeza spp. (bush clover) as the only larval host for T. confusis and I don’t have any of that currently at my place, although I’m sure it is close-by in the neighborhood.
THEN I found the following notation at the Butterflies and Moths.org Website regarding food choices for the Confused Cloudywing:
Heck, I’ve got T. florida growing in the back area, very close to the stand of Redroot that this guy was feasting on. How’s that for documented confusion.
So, while the Cloudywing may or may not be a Confused, this blogger is “Confused” indeed. I hope some additional flutterers will return for me to study further. However, if it gets down to having to dissect the genitalia, I’m out! Identification to genus will be good enough for me.
This tale was originally published by Loret T. Setters on August 29, 2014 at the defunct national blog beautifulwildlifegarden[dot]com. Click the date to view reader comments.
Propagation can take place by several means: we break apart large clumps of plants at the roots and plant elsewhere or share with others, we gather seeds and plant or share with others, the wind blows seeds, mammals and other critters carry seeds from place to place and there are many other methods, including propagation by bird. They eat the seeds, which travel through their systems, and plant them, “pre-fertilized” when they stop to rest and…ahem…poop. Sometimes they plant in excellent locations, sometimes in not so excellent locations.
I thought, today we’d walk around part of my Florida yard to see what appeared along the fence line, under the flagpole, under a wax myrtle shrub and under a pine. I’ll call this my “Planted for the Birds, by the Birds” tour. At my house, as long as the birds are planting Florida native plants, they pretty much have free rein in their choice of location. Sometimes where they choose to locate a plant will become the centerpiece for a new gardening bed.
Let’s start with a lovely Red Bay (Persea borbonia) that was planted next to an alien Pyracantha. This showed up under the branch of a very tall pine. Now, many people would have removed the Red Bay as being out of place, but I mulched around it and tried to help it grow, with the intention of removing the Pyracantha once the Red Bay reached a certain height and was established. I loved that I had something native coming up to replace a non-native that was gifted to me when I first moved here. The Red Bay did well for two years, even encouraging Palamedes Swallowtail Butterflies (Papilio palamedes) to leave their eggs, but it succumbed this past winter. Maybe it didn’t like the location but I think, in part, it met its demise since it was taken over by galls. Now, galls alone shouldn’t be harmful to this type of shrub, except for the fact that it was such a youngster and there were a LOT of galls. I still plan on pulling out the Pyracantha** after I replace the deceased Red Bay with a Red Maple (Acer rubrum) seedling that was passed on to me from a native plant sale. Hopefully I’ll have better luck with the Red Maple. I still hold out hope that a Red Bay will appear somewhere in the yard and “stick” next time.
In the front section of the yard I noticed that a Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) was coming up all on it’s own along the fence. This will happen often since birds will eat the berries and rest on a close-by fencetop. Think: WOW these birds are smart to plant a natural hedge to cover that ugly fence. While this might be in a somewhat crowded location, I like when nature plants things and I pretty much have decided to go with the flow. Beautyberries provide food for insects, birds, mammals and humans alike, and their bright purple-y-pink berries are eye-catching so from my perspective, they are a welcome addition no matter where they appear.
Not far from the new Beautyberry is some Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) crawling it’s way out from under a Wax Myrtle (Myrica cerifera). I have a friend who told me I don’t want Virginia Creeper in my yard. Well, maybe she doesn’t want Virginia Creeper in her yard, but I’ve been gathering free seedlings from another friend who, like me, thinks it is a great vine that will provide for wildlife. We tend toward more informal gardening styles. Again, Virginia Creeper provides berries for birds to eat and good coverage for nesting purposes, so I think they are pretty smart to plant it for themselves and I’m only happy to help by adding more to their landscape design.
Along the same fence as the beautyberry I noticed black-eyed Susans had begun to sprout on the outside. My initial planting of Rudbeckia hirta was in the back pollinator garden area. Based on new location, I’m guessing that birdy picked a few samples seeds and is sharing the wealth in the front garden. The more, the merrier.
I was thrilled this year to see Pokeberry (Phytolacca americana) appear next to one of my pine snags. The berries are a favorite among song birds, but use caution in maintaining a bird-planted location as they are also poisonous to humans, so keep them out of the reach of inquisitive kids. Young shoots are said to be edible, but given that the mature plant is poisonous, I wouldn’t play around with it myself. I’ll stick to other ethnobotanical uses such as using the juice to make dye or ink which we’ve used at outreach programs to teach kids about great everyday uses for native plants. A while back a Pokeberry began growing in an area near my electric box. I decided to move it outside the back fence. It didn’t make it. That’s one of the reasons that I generally let the locations chosen by the birds be the locations that the plant gets to stay in. How I wish I had just let the darn plant be. My tinkering killed the poor thing and I’m sure the birds were annoyed with me.
I also discovered an Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) stalk growing out of the planting area around the flagpole that holds my American flag. The mockingbirds just love to rest up top and I’m sure that’s how this newcomer arrived. Perhaps not the best location…I suppose I could have dug it up and moved it, but I thought back to the pokeberry brouhaha and opted to just leave it be. I now look on it with loving eyes, although I’m sure others would be rolling their eyes. But that’s ok. It was planted for the birds, by the birds, and maybe they just know best.
*This tale was originally published by Loret T. Setters on December 3, 2010 at the defunct national blog nativeplantwildlifegarden[dot]com. Click the date to view reader comments.
**Update: The alien is gone and instead of putting the maple in, I added a one gallon Sparkleberry (Vaccinium arboreum) which seems to be adapting nicely having gotten its first berries in 2016.
Diurnal moths fly during the day rather than at night like the majority of moths. Some are quite pretty and are often mistaken for butterflies. One way to differentiate between the butterflies and moths is to look at the antenna. Moths have feathered antenna and butterflies have clubbed ends.
So, here is a dozen diurnal moths that have visited my Central Florida yard from time to time.
Bella Moth (Utetheisa ornatrix) uses Rabbitbells (Crotalaria rotundifolia) as a larval host in my garden:
Small Frosted Wave Moth (Scopula lautaria):
Clouded Crimson Moth (Schinia gaurae) uses Southern Beeblossom (Oenothera simulans) as a larval host at my place:
Red-waisted Florella Moth (Syngamia florella) uses Rubiaceae family of plants, including Buttonweed (Spermacoce spp) as larval hosts:
This tale was originally published by Loret T. Setters on August 13, 2013 at the defunct national blog nativeplantwildlifegarden[dot]com. Click the date to view reader comments and find working links to other stories.
I recently read a comment about grassy areas. I don’t remember where I read it but the person remarked how their lawn area was bare from dog traffic. Now, I have two dogs and not that long ago I had three. Big dogs. Of the sporting variety and they spend a lot of time outside trotting around, flushing out rabbits, trying to catch anoles and even chasing bird shadows. There is one section where they are allowed to dig…and over the years, the late and great Chili, the Irish setter nearly made it to China. That section is under the Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) where it is barely noticeable.
The rest of my yard is green…maybe one or two bare spots where the dogs attempted to create a new dig area. For the most part, the yard is green with tight groundcovers so during rainy season I don’t get a heck of a lot of mud tracked in (except maybe if the paws dug under the palmetto).
I set out to figure out why, with my crew, and the two other woofs I baby-sit for…why is my place green and not muddy?
I took a look and I have a medley of native groundcovers that I had nothing to do with planting. No monoculture here…Mother Nature doesn’t believe in that. There is fogfruit (or frogfruit…the vernacular depending upon where you live) (Phyla nodiflora), various native sedges, Virginia Buttonweed (Diodia virginiana), spadeleaf(Centella asiatica), exotic bahia grass (not my choice) and pennywort. Plenty of Manyflower Marshpennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata), a native variety of …you know… that groundcover that everyone is set on killing…the dreaded <gasp> DOLLARWEED!!!!!!
Well heck, yeah, it can be aggressive but it fits in nicely with my other groundcovers and while there is a lot of it, it certainly isn’t taking over the guy next to it. Everyone gets along fine. Soooo, if someone is looking for a groundcover, why not just go with Dollarweed and save your dollars? Cheap groundcover that coupled with a few other native plants, stand up to dog paws.
Pennywort is said to be edible but use caution as it is a natural filter that absorbs chemicals, including pesticides and fertilizers from runoff so care should be taken that the population of plants is in a non-targeted area before ingesting. It is sturdy and will maintain soil stability. The butterflies, bees and other pollinators love it when it blooms, certain spiders use it to build their low webs and others use it to hide from spider wasps. It provides shade for small frogs and toads. It does require moisture so if you are very dry, it wouldn’t be appropriate, as we want to conserve water, not use it to keep ANY area green.
One section of the yard had a pile of mulch that didn’t get distributed so I turned into a “mound” of these various groundcovers as a pollinator haven. It is bevy of activity all the time and another interesting element of my native plant and wildlife garden.
This tale is an update from an original published by Loret T. Setters on August 13, 2012 at the defunct national blog nativeplantwildlifegarden[dot]com. Click the date to view reader comments and find working links to other stories.
I heard a loud drone while walking out back. I glanced over to an area I have let restore that consists of a patch of Winged Sumac(Rhus copallinum). There, covering the creamy white blossoms was a gang of pollinators of many shapes and sizes. There were solitary bees, honeybees, flies, ants and many Thread-waisted Wasps (Sphex spp.).
Winged Sumac gets its common name from the protrusions along the leaf stems that resemble wings.
Winged Sumac holds a place in my heart since it offers a bit of autumn coloring that I miss from my Northeast U.S. roots. The green leaves turn vibrant shades of red, gold and orange as the season changes.
Plants are dioecious so only the female plants produce berries that are eaten by grouse, wild turkey, and songbirds.
Rabbits eat the bark and twigs, especially during the winter months. The twigs are also browsed extensively by white-tailed deer during the winter months when other more desirable browse is scarce. This plant is listed as having special value to native bees, special value to honeybees, and is a major player in supporting conservation biological control, which is evident by just how many of the Thread-Waisted Wasps were gathered in my garden. These wasps are parasites of crickets and katydids.
Winged Sumac has a history of ethnobotanical uses one of which is to treat dysentery. Native Americans also used the fruits as a dye. When I experimented and made a dye from the berries, the cloth came out a light shade of gold, which seemed contrary to the redness of the fruits. Nevertheless, the color was stunning. The fruits can be processed into jelly and also be used as a base for a lemonade flavored beverage.
In Florida, R. copallinum is listed as a larval host for the Luna Moth(Actias luna) and Royal Walnut Moth(Citheronia regalis), although I’ve yet to experience this wildlife benefit. It is a larval host for the Redbanded Hairstreak (Calycopis cecrops) and the numbers of this butterfly in my garden certainly speaks for it being so. BUT, don’t look for the larva on the tree itself because it is the only Florida butterfly to utilize detritus (leaf litter) as larval food. Another reason to not be overly neat in the garden. Leave those leaves.
Given all the benefit a sumac can provide to a wildlife garden, you certainly should investigate which species would work in your area of the country. Is Flame Leaf Prairie Sumac(R. lanceolata) right for you garden? or would Staghorn Sumac(R. typhina) be a better fit. No matter what your choice, this plant should be a priority in your wildlife gardening mecca. The pollinators will thank you for it.
This tale was originally published by Loret T. Setters on August 16, 2013 at the defunct national blog beautifulwildlifegarden[dot]com. Click the date to view reader comments and find working links to other stories.
My friend Cindy (@gemswinc) left, in part, the following comment in response to an article where I was taking on the role of Mother Nature…“tinkering with nature”, so to speak.
“…But, Loret as a wildlife gardener shouldn’t you be letting the Mockers and Bluebirds work it out for themselves ”
Cindy’s contemplative remark has been rattling around in my head for a few weeks and it really got me thinking: am I shallow when it comes to my wildlife garden? How about you? Are you the same?
Case and point; what is your reaction when you see a spider with a butterfly in its clutches? How about if you see a moth caterpillar covered with parasitic wasp eggs? If the former appalls you and you’re ecstatic about the latter, you just might be a little shallow when it comes to life in the wildlife garden.
As humans, it seems our natural inclination is to try and save those that we find pretty and squelch what doesn’t fit in with our views of a happy gardening process. Admit it, we are all guilty. I would run over to help release a butterfly or dragonfly stuck in a spider web, yet the other day I watched a grasshopper get caught and I didn’t move a muscle. Shouldn’t we view both scenarios equally? Don’t the grasshoppers have equal value? I mean, aren’t they food for birds? Do we kill the spider because it grabbed something pretty? Heck, when a spider has a mosquito in its clutches, I’ve considered throwing it a parade.
Spiders are having a field day at my place lately. And there is no shortage of menu choices for them. Some may be choosing items from the menu that I’m not to thrilled with, but I have to remember that in many instances, it is important to accept the food chain and let nature take its course.
Another question I’m sure all of us have grappled with is: do I rush out to get endless amounts of a larval host plant because I feel the need to provide and get as many caterpillars to butterfly-hood where they are more eye-appealing? Do I keep the caterpillars from the birds by rearing them in protective cases? Should I, in fact, being giving some “tough love” and letting the birds have at it? Should I let the caterpillars and parasitic wasps duke it out among themselves, ensuring that the strongest survive? Tough, it’s tough and I don’t have an answer.
If a hawk carries a baby bird away, are you shaking your fist at the hawk? How about if the hawk hauls away a rodent? See what I mean?
In the world of gardening where the development of our home areas upsets the natural habitat anyway it likely is in the best interest overall to give help along the way. But, at least now I think about my motivations before I take any drastic action.
So, thank you @gemswinc for making me take a step back when I try to improve on what should be a natural process. While I still “tinker”, I also have learned to carefully examine why a certain encounter elicits the view of unspeakable carnage in my view. I reevaluate my choices in how I handle it, probably allowing for a more balanced Beautiful Wildlife Garden.
This tale was originally published by Loret T. Setters on August 17, 2012 at (beautifulwildlifegarden.com/). Click the date to view reader comments.
I saw a “hanging thief” this past week, and was dismayed that a honeybee was held in its clutches. Hanging Thieves are a type of Robber Fly (Asilidae Family). While interesting to watch, and fun to photograph, robber flies have never been a favorite of mine since it seems that any time I’ve seen their predatory behavior it is usually has a pollinator in their clutches. Eliminating wasps and bees seem counterintuitive to being a beneficial insect.
But, you have to go beyond what may be right there before your eyes and delve a little deeper into the making of a robber fly. They have huge appetites so they help maintain the natural balance among insect populations. While, they take parasitic wasps and flies, much of their prey consists of plant-feeding insects. Robber fly larvae live in the soil or in various other decaying organic materials that occur in their environment. Larvae are also predatory, feeding on eggs, larvae, or other soft-bodied insects. We must keep in mind that what goes on in the ground where we don’t see, might just be the more beneficial aspect of a given species.
The noticeable predation on bees has given the Mallophora species of Robber Flies the common name of “Bee Killers”. Not a testimony to my wanting them in the garden. But, the Bee Killers are ectoparasites on scarabaeid beetle grubs. Ahhh…they have won my heart. Kill those darn June Bugs in the making with my blessings!
So, they have their rung in the food chain and I will have to overlook the fact that when they are most visible, they might just behave in a manner that I don’t agree with. Ahh, nature. A delicate balancing act. You have to take the good with the bad…and are we humans really equipped to make the decision on which insect is more worthy than another? Aesthetics shouldn’t be a deciding factor. We need to look beyond the beauty of a butterfly or dragonfly and consider that a grub may just have an equally important role in the scheme of things. My advice is to not use personal aesthetic perceptions in making environmental decisions. After all, who wouldn’t choose a beautiful and cute lion cub over some pasty looking human. Food for thought!
Newton, Blake University of Kentucky Department of Entomology Critter Files
The tale of a softshell turtle originally published by Loret T. Setters on August 1, 2014 at (beautifulwildlifegarden.com/).
I’m a bit sad. Well, not yet, but I will be soon. I caught Thomasina, *my* Florida Softshell Turtle(Apalone ferox) trying to make a break for it.
Generally quite shy, it is the first time I got to photograph her out of the water. She was slinking her way through a grassy path in the garden, about 100 foot from the pond, Quite close to the fence that separates the “wildlife protected area” from the “dog area”.
I looked at her, snapped a few photos and ushered her back into the pond. Anyone who thinks turtles are slow, hasn’t met this freshwater species. She’s a pretty big girl and shot out of the 20-gallon planter I used to move her. She was fast like a bullet, leaving a huge wave in her wake as she dove back in.
I so love watching her paddling slowing around the pond, reaching up with that long, giraffe-like neck to the top of the lilypads. The big bug eyes peering out at water level look like dual periscopes from a submarine. Thomasina arrived on the scene in June of 2013, shortly after the alligator left. She has been a fascinating addition to my little piece of native plant paradise.
Back to 2014: Two days later I saw Thomasina and this time she made it to the dog side of the fence. Still closer to the pond than the street, I again ushered her back to the pond. *Was* I was protecting her?
Mind you, my “street” is an unpaved dirt road that has a total of 5 houses on my side, and 1 house on the opposite side. There is a travel trailer or two hidden back from the street and one or two additional cleared lots, but overall the block is more woods than development. Aside from the local residents on the block, we probably get three of four cars driving down the block a day, so I really don’t have to fear the turtle getting run over. Besides, in this neighborhood most people stop and usher the wildlife across the road to safety.
Truth is, I *may* have a hint of selfishness in relocating her back into my pond each time.
So, I anticipate that one day when I am out shopping and away from home for a few hours that Thomasina will make it to freedom. I’ll be sad to see her go, but I realize that wildlife is wildlife and it isn’t fair for us to try and regulate their comings and goings beyond providing a meal or habitat protection with smart native plant additions to our gardens.
While to me the pond is retirement paradise, perhaps being an only child just got to be too lonely for this lovely reptile. She deserves the opportunity to seek out her own kind, so I won’t try and stop her.
I’m learning the lesson that it is not a good idea to name the wildlife. When they decide to move on it makes it that much harder to see them go.
You don’t need a huge pond like mine to attract reptiles or other herps. Even small water sources can be an asset. Find a wealth of general hints in our blogs or check out this article on adding a pond that will not only provide for the wildlife, but is kid friendly and educational.